Understanding the covenant process on Mt. Sinai and the changing of priesthood

the action of signing or giving formal consent to a treaty, contract, or agreement, making it officially valid.

The entirety of our faith is centered around Mt. Sinai.
The whole point of salvation is centered around Mt. Sinai
The whole future of God’s children is centered around Mt. Sinai

It’s another identifiable shortcoming of modern theological institutions that don’t define or help their parishioners understand the roots of the beginnings of the most high’s relationship with his chosen people.

The most high God chooses the mechanics of covenant to relate to his creation, and we are not taught the fundamentals!

Basic Covenant Process

Staying within the covenant terms and obligations - living out the covenant terms.

What actually happened in Exodus:

After ratification - covenant terms were ripped up
Enter into an arbitration/negotiation situation.
Renewed proposal
Staying within the covenant terms and obligations - living out the covenant terms.

Initial invitation into the covenant/proposal:

On the first day of the third month after the Israelites left Egypt—on that very day—they came to the Desert of Sinai. 2 After they set out from Rephidim,
they entered the Desert of Sinai, and Israel camped there in the desert in front of the mountain.


3 Then Moses went up to God, and the Lord called to him from the mountain and said, [INVITATION/PROPOSITION] “This is what you are to say to the descendants of Jacob
and what you are to tell the people of Israel:

4 ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself.

[Terms of the proposal]

5 Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my [PROMISE] treasured possession. Although the whole earth is mine,

6 you[a] will be for me a [PROMISE] kingdom of priests and a [PROMISE] holy nation.’ These are the words you are to speak to the Israelites.”

7 So Moses went back and summoned the elders of the people and set before them all the words the Lord had commanded him to speak.

[Acceptance of the proposal]

8 The people all responded together, “We will do everything the Lord has said.” So Moses brought their answer back to the Lord.
9 The Lord said to Moses, “I am going to come to you in a dense cloud, so that the people will hear me speaking with you and will always put their trust in you.”
Then Moses told the Lord what the people had said.


  • Who is invited?
  • Who are the two covenant parties?

Requirements/promises of the covenant:

  • obedience to Yahweh results in the children of Israel [Jacob was renamed Israel so Yah selected a name for his children] being a 'treasured posession"
  • That the children of Israel will be “kings” (having a dominion they control) and “priests” (direct access to God).
  • That the children of Israel will be a “nation” a kingdom of people.

Exodus 19:25 end of chapter we leave off with the children of Israel at the base of the mountain, Yahweh sends Moses down to guard the people
from breaking through the perimeter to look at him, and Moses being told to fetch Aaron.

Exodus 20 - Moses goes down the mountain to tell the people the covenant terms and fetch Aaron

Exodus 20:18 - Children of Israel are at the base of the mountain and they’re hearing the thunder and crackling. They get scared and want Moses to talk to God, because they were afraid.

Exodus 20:20+ through 23 - Moses goes back up the mountain Yah teaches him more of the covenant terms.

Exodus 24:1-2 - God tells moses to call up Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu + Seventy elders of Israel and have them worship afar off, but Moses will come to him.
:3 - Moses goes to the people and tells them more of the Covenant, Moses wrote all the terms woke up early in the morning, and built an altar under a hill.
with twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes of Israel. Took the sacrifice put half the blood in Baisons and half he sprinkled on the altar
:7 - Moses takes the book of the covenant reads the terms to the people again. [ACCEPTANCE] The children of Israel accept the terms.
:9 - Moses takes the leaders back up the mountain - there they actually saw a man figure of God (Yeshua/Christ).
:12 - Yah calls moses up the mountain to give him the tables of stone.
:16 - Yah calls Moses into the cloud on the seventh day.

Exodus 25 - Yahweh asks offerings from the children of Israel -

  • Instructions to make the ark of the covenant & tent of meeting.

Exodus 26 - instructions concerning the tabernacle
27 - instructions on the tabernacle
28 - Instructions on Aaron being a heigh priest
29 - Sanctifying the priests
30 - More instructions
31 - Instructions of the Sabbath
31:18 - Yahweh concluded the terms of the covenant. Sends Moses with two tables of testimony - tables of stone written by the finger of Yahweh (Christ).

Cancellation of the original covenant:

32 - Children of Israel were waiting for Moses who was tarrying on the mountain for 40 days and nights
32:15 - both sides of the tablets had writing - critical to know that it was comprehensive.
32:16 - establishes again these tables were the workings of Yahweh’s finger.
32:25 - the people were spiritually naked and physically naked
32:26 - Moses stood at the gates and called on the levites who in turn slew a number of the children of Israel. If Moses did it so that Yahweh’s name would not be shamed.

Now we read in Numbers 3:11-13 that Yahweh selects the Levites as the priesthood instead of the FIRSTBORNS BEING PRIESTS:

Numbers 3:11-13 - 11 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 12 “Behold, I have taken the Levites from among the people of Israel instead of every firstborn who opens the womb among the people of Israel. The Levites shall be mine, 13 for all the firstborn are mine. On the day that I struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, I consecrated for my own all the firstborn in Israel, both of man and of beast. They shall be mine: I am the Lord.”

32:30 - Moses goes to make atonement for their sin (sin is transgression of the law or the covenant terms)
32:34 - Omnious warning from Yahweh promising to revisit that sin on the children of Israel… Lets get it right folks.
33:1-3 - Yahweh says he no longer will let the cloud/fire be in the midst of the people because they’re stiffnecked.
33:7 - Moses sets up the tabernacle of meeting outside the camp.
:9 - Cloudy pillar descended and Moses talked to Yahweh as a friend.
:14 - 17 - Moses Argues with Yahweh that his presence be in the midst of the people because of God’s grace.
33- The clef of the rock did not take place on the mountain of God, it took place outside the camp near the cleff of the rock.

Re-establishment of same covenant with the distinction that the Levites recieve the entirety priesthood, instead of the High Priest position.

34:1-4 - Yahweh calls Moses back up the mountain and has Moses carve out the stones, but he will write on them.
34:5 - Yeshua proclaimed the name of Yahweh there.
34:9 - Moses again begs for the presence of the Lord to return in the midst of the people.
34:27 - After tenor of these words Moses goes back down the mountain
34: - Veil over the face of Moses is a “funeral covering?”
36-37 - Recitation of covenant terms, and the people started acting in obligations